Glass painting for beginners
Glass painting seems complicated to many, but mastering it is much easier than painting with a brush or pencil. This interesting technique creates exclusive home decorations. With your own hands, you can draw various paintings, paint unprepossessing vases, make an original glass object that will certainly fit into any interior. Work with stained glass paints is a creative, amazing process that can give a room a unique character.
The first painted glass elements appeared hundreds of years ago. Throughout all time, they either lost their popularity, or regained it. According to found written sources, this was at the beginning of the 12th century. Drawings on such glasses were created with special paint made of copper and iron.
Stained glass paintings in the Middle Ages could only be seen in temples. A peculiar play of light immersed the parishioners in a mysterious atmosphere of reverence. The Renaissance can be considered the peak of the popularity of stained glass art. Many wealthy citizens began to prefer such window decoration.
In the sixteenth century, because of religious wars, glass painting, as an art, faded. The decrease in demand in the Enlightenment was influenced by the desire for transparency, the mass destruction of painted products. Only in the XIX century there was a revival of stained glass painting in Russia, thanks to the order issued by Nicholas I on the construction of a glass factory. This type of decor remains popular to this day.
Where and how is glass painting applied?
Using glass painting, you can create amazing stylish pictures with your own hands, using all the advantages of the material. Stained glass painting decorates windows, mirrors, various partitions and other interior elements. It is also used to decorate furniture - cabinet doors, kitchen facades. Even large objects will look easy and elegant if intricate patterns are applied to them.
Glass pieces of furniture are decorated in commercial office premises. It can be racks, doors, windows. In an apartment or house, this type of decoration is more often used in the bedroom, hallway, living room. You can make a beautiful screen in the Hanami style, draw blooming sakura. Such an element of zoning will fill the room with the spirit of a captivating east. You can work with stained-glass paints in the following techniques:
- Mosaic stained glass window. Geometric, floral ornament, carpet patterns are characteristic;
- Painted. Absolutely all areas of glass are painted. Paints are liquid, spread and mix, creating stains, new shades;
- Contour filler. First, a contour is drawn, a sketch is created. Then the space is filled with paints;
- Layered. Paints are applied in layers of varying degrees of dampness. In this way create the most realistic images;
- Spot painting. Contours are used to form the image. The saturation of the dots is changed by color, the density of the paint.
Necessary materials and tools
Stained glass painting is an imitation of an ordinary stained-glass window using stencils and other devices of the artist. Their large selection allows both professionals and novice masters to engage in this type of art. To work in any technique of painting on glass, special paints, brushes and some auxiliary materials (napkins, alcohol, palette, varnish for coating, etc.) will be required.
Material for drawing is presented in a huge assortment. When choosing paints, their properties, abrasion resistance, and purpose should be taken into account. Glass paints can be used for decorating, professional painting of dimensional objects, entertainment with children, training workshops. The expected effect is important - transparency, matte, glossy finish. The painting itself affects the choice of paint (windows, pottery, bottles, vases).
Some types of paints cannot be used for painting objects that come into contact with food due to their toxicity. There are materials that do not withstand contact with water and detergents.
The composition includes natural, synthetic pigments, water, binders. Acrylics are available in a wide range of colors. They can be transparent, covering, create the effect of stained glass. The material varies in composition and solidification method. For homework, it is better to choose a water base that dries quickly at room temperature. The main benefits include the following facts:
- Lightfastness, even glass coating;
- A wide palette of shades, bright colors;
- The possibility of dilution with sparkles;
- Resistance to abrasion;
- Do not spread when applying acrylic to glass;
- They do not have a pungent odor;
- Convenient packaging (cans, spray cans, tubes).
Stained glass paints
Diverse in composition, texture, consistency. They are divided into three main groups - on organic solvents, water-based, acrylic mixtures. In addition to the usual colors for beginners, there are mixtures with various effects, decorative inserts. Popular decor is created using the following materials:
- Stuck. Form a thin film after drying. It can be removed from a convenient base and transferred to any surface;
- Luster paints. Have a metallic sheen;
- Volumetric. During firing, the mixture partially exfoliates, creating a corrugated pattern;
- Granular. Special granules are glued with glue, during heat treatment of the product they spread. It turns out a pimpled picture;
- Transparent mother of pearl. Apply on top of the main color, add extra shine;
- Structural. Issued in jars in the form of paste. After drying create an imitation of natural surfaces (stone, wood, leather);
- Paints with additives. Add various spangles, a luminescent pigment.
They have a thick consistency. The gel does not spread, does not slide down a vertical surface. The main field of application is the painting of mirrors, windows, doors, partitions. It is convenient to work with the mixture in screen technology. Can be used to decorate glass plates, mugs.
You can work with a transparent, opaque, translucent gel. Any shade from the palette can be combined, add glitter, create a relief using a palette knife. The stunning effect of a frosty pattern is obtained using a translucent satin gel. Water-based mixtures do not require fixing, hold firmly to the surface. If necessary, they can be easily removed by applying a wet rag to them for several hours.
Used to decorate dishes, bottles, vases and other decorative elements of various shapes. In order to fix the special paint well, the objects are fired after painting. Then they can be washed with water, without fear that the picture will come off.
Ceramic paints are made by mixing clay, colorless glaze, fluxes, artificial, natural pigments. According to the method of application, the material can be underglaze, overglaze. For good adhesion, sugar and glycerin are added to the paint. Calcined mixtures are applied to the product and subjected to heat treatment.
Such mixtures are often used to decorate mirrors, windows, shop windows for any holiday. Their feature is the ability to delete at any time. Suitable for frequent design changes when there is no need for thematic painting.
Using film paints, the drawing will first need to be applied to the acetate film. After the painting has dried, it is easily peeled off and transferred to any place. If the pattern is small, you can put its pattern in a plastic file and circle it around the outline with paints, then lean it against the desired element. Such paints are not fixed on the surface. Before cleaning, washing windows with a film pattern, the application should be removed. After the procedures, you can return it back.
Ceramic, glassware, painted with a marker for painting on glass, looks very original. You can work with materials of various classes and sizes. The thickness of the rod, the smoothness of the line will depend on such indicators.
The drawing can be immediately applied with a marker or previously make the outline with a simple pencil. After firing, graphite will disappear, only a colorful pattern will remain. It is better for novice masters to choose plain dishes with a smooth surface. To correctly predict the proportions, you should make a sketch in full size of the subject.
Paints requiring preparation
The art of glass painting is constantly being improved. From a once rare hobby turns into a widespread hobby. You can create an original picture on a mirror, a door, a vase with special paints, which have long been not a shortage. Everyone can try themselves in any of the techniques. In order not to spend money on large batches of material, paints can be made by yourself using the following recipes:
- Gelatin-aniline mixture. Prepares immediately before work. Such paint should not be stored, therefore, the solution should be mixed only once. For cooking, you need to pour 10 g of gelatin with three tablespoons of hot water, prepare aniline powder dyes, mix everything together. The fluidity of the mixture depends on its temperature;
- Nitro-oil composition. The creation of his paints enables the artist to fully control their quality. You can make from any vegetable oil, it is better to take linseed, and pigment. The coloring matter should be placed on a sanding plate, add oil and mix slowly using a muller;
- Soviet recipes. In the 80s-90s, paints from various improvised means were used to paint glass. For the base of the mixtures, PVA glue was chosen. It was mixed with food colors, gouache, pen pens, acetone and various solvents.
You can draw on glass with any brush for painting. It is very easy for them to draw complex outlines of drawings. If the area is impressive, it is better to use large construction brushes with a rounded end. For applying a fixative, transparent varnish, wide models of brushes are used.
For glass painting, objects for painting with both natural and synthetic pile are suitable. Natural bristles are best used for water-based, oil-based paints. After watching several workshops, pretty quickly learn how to hold the brush when working in various techniques.
Auxiliary tools and materials
The main working materials for painting on glass are brushes and paints. For each technique, special coloring mixtures and auxiliary materials are chosen. Often use the following ways to simplify painting:
- Lead tape. Adhesive stripes allow you to create the effect of stained glass;
- Outliner. Colored paste in a tube lays with a thin pattern on any surface. After hardening, it forms a relief contour, which prevents the spreading of paint;
- Masking tape. Protects transparent areas from accidental staining;
- Palette knife. A metal spatula is used when decorating large items;
- Tools for fixing errors. Until the paint has dried, you can erase it with a cotton swab dipped in water or a solvent. The still uncured edges of the contour are smoothed with a toothpick;
- Materials for templates. Most often use paper, film stencils. For products of complex shape, you can use a simple pencil, a disappearing outline.
DIY glass painting
To engage in this type of artistic creativity is possible for an ordinary person who has not even studied the basics of decorative and applied art. To make painting on glass at home became possible due to the simplification of technology, a large selection of materials for work, their low cost, the ability to use stencils.
You can draw on your own on a glass surface at any age, even shared by all family members. With each new craft experience will be gained. In the future, the acquired skills will allow you to create a magnificent, original drawing on the surface, turn a plain glass vessel or object into a masterpiece. The main thing in this business is patience and accuracy.
How to prepare glass for painting
Having made a firm decision to bring the idea to life, to do glass painting, you first need to choose an object that will be the basis for the work, be it a window, a glass, a bottle, a plate, a mirror or other objects. It is better for beginners to use a base with a flat, smooth surface, since it is difficult to work with bends, convex places, paints spread out on them, a complex pattern may look bad, not correspond to the plan presented to it.
Having decided on the element, it is necessary to prepare its surface. If the master is satisfied with the color of the product as the main background, just wash it with soap and water, then rinse with clean water. If there are labels, the glass object should be immersed in hot water for a quarter of an hour, after which the glue residue is removed. To prevent the fibers from the towel remaining on the glass, it is better to let it dry on its own. When the item is completely dry, it must be degreased, this can be done using alcohol-containing liquid.
If you want to change the background color, after all preparatory operations it is necessary to cover the surface with a special layer of soil (primer), wait until it dries. Next, apply two layers of acrylic paint of a suitable color. You can not apply the next coat until the first is completely dry. At the final stage, the glass element is varnished.
How to transfer a drawing to glass
Having decided on the image, the next step will be to display the picture on the glass. There are several ways. The fastest - immediately draw a picture on a glass surface. However, only a specialist who is confident in his abilities can accomplish this. It is better for a novice master to use the following simple techniques:
- Place a sketch under the glass. With the image below the glass surface, use the glass outline to redraw it from above. The method is perfect for flat, even transparent objects. If the element has a round, complex shape, where it is impossible to attach the paper, even with adhesive tape, it needs to be slightly moistened in water, after which it will become malleable, take almost any shape, and will adhere well to the glass without additional fixatives.
- Copy paper. For opaque objects, narrow-necked bottles, mirrors, paper drawing is not acceptable. In this case, it is better to use a carbon paper. The main thing in this method is to attach the sketch and carbon paper well to the surface of the object. If the image accidentally moves, then the work will have to be performed anew.
- Cling film. A piece of cling film is laid on top of the prepared drawing from above, and for reliable fixation it should be larger in size than the sketch. Using a glass marker, draw contours along the surface of the packaging material. Next, the film with the translated image on the front side is fixed on a glass object so that there are no voids or folds between them. With the help of a bamboo stick, a helium pen, we gently outline the contours. As a result, the marker will be transferred to the glass.
Stencils allow anyone to paint on a glass surface, even if he draws very poorly. At the same time, finished products can be bought at specialized retail outlets, but many craftsmen prefer to make them on their own, which allows them to choose any image they like. To do this, it is enough to lay a sheet of loose paper on top of the picture, circle the contours, cut a blank from them. Consider a step-by-step instruction on how to work with templates:
- We prepare the surface of the selected object, degrease it.
- Put the stencil evenly on a plane. Using tape, fix it in the corners and around the perimeter. You can also use temporary spray glue, this will avoid accidental shifts of the template, which can reduce all the work done to nothing.
- Now we start painting (stained glass and acrylic paints can be used for this method). Apply the coloring agent to the surface.
- It is better to paint from the borders to the center, you need to paint a little by little, apply a thin layer, removing smudges and excesses with a napkin.
This method is also called point-to-point. To draw an image in an unconventional drawing technique, you will need to purchase contour paints. Getting to know this species is better on simple, unnecessary items. Consider a simple master class on applying a bitmap in the form of a flower on the surface of a glass:
- We take the finished sketch of the right size. It can be printed on a printer, cut out from a magazine or book.
- Using temporary spray glue or soaking paper in water, we fix the image on the inside of the glass.
- The outer surface of the container is degreased.
- We draw points along the contour of the drawing, preferably of the same size, while they should be evenly spaced from each other. For work, you can use any colors you like.
- Having marked the outline, we proceed to fill out the drawing. Dots are also plotted here. To do this, you can use a different color, or a shade of the main.
- After the paint layer has completely dried, it is desirable to apply colorless varnish to the picture.
For work, contour paints are used. Initially, the outline is drawn around the outline, and after it dries, the internal voids are painted over. This method allows you to divide the process into several stages, to make a detailed drawing of the picture. For clarity, we will analyze the master class of applying contours to the surface of the plate:
- Prepare the surface of the kitchen utensils.
- We apply the prepared stencil, using the marker we transfer the outlines of the image to the plane of the object.
- Having removed the template, we proceed to the application of contour paints to the obtained lines. It is better to use a thick composition, with it you can create the most even lines.
- In order to avoid line junctions during work, semicircular and curved borders must be drawn in one motion. Straight lines are the most complex, require some skill.
- In the body of the image itself, you can additionally draw different patterns, curls.
- After the contour has completely dried, you can start painting.
Stained glass painting
There are several techniques for simulating art stained-glass windows: photo printing, film stained-glass window, jellied, art painting. We will study the first methods a bit later. Let us dwell in more detail on the latter option. Consider how to paint a window using stained glass paints:
- We prepare the base, degrease it.
- The prepared template is applied to the glass surface, we fix it, we outline the contours with a pneumatic marker.
- Using black acrylic paint, we draw the marked lines.
- After complete drying, with a brush we paint over empty cavities of the picture.
- Stained glass paints are distinguished by the fact that they spread very much, therefore it is not recommended to apply a different color until the previous one has completely dried to avoid the possibility of mixing colors. It is also better to use varnishes based on organic resins for work.
- After drawing, it must be completely dried naturally. If you use a hair dryer to dry, the paint may subsequently crack or darken.
- At the final stage, when the surface is completely dry, it is necessary to cover it with a colorless varnish.
When changing colors, you must carefully wash the brush, wipe with a cloth.
Jellied stained glass window
The best way to simulate a real stained glass window. For work, it is advisable to use the contour and stained glass paints from one manufacturer. On large planes, stained-glass lead tape can be used, which will also prevent coloring materials from mixing and spreading over the surface. Let’s take a step-by-step instruction on how to make a stained-glass window on glass for an interior door:
- Create a sketch yourself. In the absence of skills, download finished projects on the network.
- Under the bottom of the prepared base we fix the selected pattern, fix it with tape.
- On the surface of the glass with a contour, we transfer all the lines. The height of the contour mixture depends on the planned thickness of the paint layer, which affects its transparency.
- Having dried the workpiece, we proceed to pouring the obtained cells. This can be done with a brush, or more quickly using a syringe. It is necessary to fill from the edge of the line to the center. Drops are carefully eliminated.
- Cells must be filled alternately. Upon completion of the painting, the structure is dried, after which it can be installed in the doorway.
Fashionable new technique for decorating glass objects. Both flat glasses and volumetric candlesticks, various glasses are suitable. With this simple technology you can create unique things. This workshop will tell you how to decorate a set of glasses:
- We fill a deep container with water, drip a few drops of paint in the center for marmorizing;
- When the dye spreads over the entire surface, we drip another color, then a few more different ones and dilute it;
- Stir with a long wooden stick, forming a beautiful pattern;
- When the pattern is ready, gently pulls out a stick so that the paint does not reach for it;
- We degrease the glasses with rags and alcohol, glue the top edge with construction tape and immerse the objects one by one in the water;
- Glasses must be moved in the water, as if winding a drawing.
Painting with film paints
To work, you need film paints of the required colors, acetate film or a regular file if the template is small. We place the picture under a transparent film and circle its contour using a special modeling contour. Any irregularities can be fixed with a simple toothpick or match. Now the picture should be left for 12 hours to dry.
Colorize the picture with film paints, stretching them with a brush, a toothpick so that they touch the contour. After complete drying, up to 24 hours, the picture can be removed and transferred to any glass interior item. It is better not to decorate street windows in this way, since their surface can collect condensation.
How to fix a picture on a stack
After finishing work on applying paint to glass, the picture must be fixed. To do this, you can use various varnishes and a special spray. Stained glass mixtures in water or solvent are coated with clear varnish. If there is no such material at hand, you can use hairspray that is transparent to the nails.
For film paints, there is no fixative, but such an application is simply removed and transferred to any other place while wet cleaning will take place. Firing paints can be fixed in a conventional oven.
You can paint a variety of glass objects using any technique. The main and auxiliary material is chosen depending on personal preferences, skill level, availability of necessary samples and decoration features. Even the simplest accessory can be turned into a real masterpiece and an object of pride, which will be placed in a frame, passed from generation to generation.