Do-it-yourself apartment design project
The designation designation came into use in the 16th century in Europe. Although the word was originally from the English language, an exhaustive interpretation of the term was given in Italy: the concept of art, which appeared in a person under the influence of higher powers, the muse, God. Design is a dynamic system that is based on technical aesthetics, but is in constant development. In the world's first magazine entirely devoted to this direction of art, two theses were formulated on which it is still based. In the first place for any designer should remain the functional purpose of the thing, and only in the second - its decoration. That is, in attempts to invent something original, non-standard, beautiful, we must not forget about the purpose for which it was created. The author of the simple wording was Ser Henry Cole, who gave the world not only many technical innovations, but also became the author of the idea of Christmas cards. Over time, the concept was divided into separate branches, which created a complex structure. Among them is the interior design - a set of rules and design features of the interior decoration of the room. Along with the landscape view (arrangement of the site and the yard), it is most often used in everyday life and has practical benefits. The development of such projects is carried out by professional designers, but every owner of an apartment or a house is faced with the problem of creating a unique atmosphere. In order to save money or out of a desire to try out their talents as a designer, many refuse the services of masters and start designing on their own. This task is not an easy one, since housing should be not only beautiful, but also comfortable. We will talk about how to make a design project of an apartment yourself and what rules you need to focus on for beginners, in this article.
Before proceeding with the repair, you should take up the development of the project. Previously, designers created drawings on paper. This work was painstaking and took a very long time to draw one sketchy sketch, it could take several hours. When errors were detected, it was necessary to start all over again. Now in the age of high technology, when almost every home has a personal computer, special programs came to the rescue of designers. They made it possible to create a project manually without any outside help. If for some reason the designer does not want to contact the visualizers, then you can use a simple photoshop. In the absence of the skills of a graphic designer, a sketchy outline will suffice. To develop a project on your own for someone, and not for yourself, you need to get into the bullseye with the concept of work. When choosing it, they are based on age, gender, psychotype, characteristics of the character and preferences of the owner. Inspiration is drawn from the beautiful, high-quality work of venerable designers, but you should not get carried away and roll into frank plagiarism. Someone else's ideas are good only when they inspire images of their own.
Stages of creating a project
All work can be divided into stages:
- Preliminary study of the territory, creation of a technical plan with measurements of premises and analysis of utility networks. A lot will depend on the accuracy of the numbers that the designer will receive, since an error even in a millimeter can lead to serious consequences. By the way, in new serial houses, measurements can be borrowed from the MBTI plan.
- Preparation of the project on paper or in the program. Visualization of the plan. Making measurements.
- Redevelopment, installation of partitions, zoning. Laying communication lines.
- The choice of stylistic solutions, colors, materials.
- Arrangement of furniture. At this stage, we must not forget that all objects should have their place, but at the same time, lonely voids should not form in the room.
- Selection of decor.
After drawing up a draft project on paper, it is redrawn onto a blank sheet or printed if the creation took place in the program. When there are experienced pros among acquaintances who have eaten more than one dog in this business, it will be useful to give them their work to study.
If there is no permanent access to the apartment or house, then during the measurements you need to make an act of photographing and capture the room. Being far away, it will be easier to plan something and select the most optimal solutions if the pictures are constantly in front of your eyes.
Determine the style
Finding your style in a variety of directions is quite difficult. To determine what the soul is for, you just need to study a selection of typical interiors. Although the type of housing does not impose any restrictions on stylistic concepts, for certain apartments and houses, some areas are used more often than others. So for luxurious apartments choose chic classics, baroque, rococo, art nouveau, colonial style. For one-room apartments in Khrushchev, convenient options are selected that can smooth out the main drawback - crowding. The directions that can transform small rooms (the “scourge” of small-sized one-room housing) include minimalism, futurism, loft, Japanese, Scandinavian style. In the territories of spacious studios they embody the ideas of modern style, high-tech, eclecticism, fusion, and Provence. Since the type of layout is considered an innovation in the world of interior fashion, the decor should correspond to such a fashionable apartment. At the dachas, they use the Russian style and country, as two polar varieties of ethnicity. In the conditions of the outback they look most organically. In addition, they allow you to save on materials, since you can always use helpers (a tree) if the forest is nearby, and there is a work permit from the local ranger / forester. Cozy and home provence, a more rigorous chalet, a number of "geographical" areas: Italian, German, Spanish, English style are also suitable for decorating summer cottages.
The choice of color, texture and finishing materials
Self-selection of a palette should begin with the concept of color combination. The principles of combining mass, but we will highlight only the main ones:
- Complementary or contrasting. Two colors are used in this combination, which are located on different sides of the Itten spectral circle. They are opposite in psychological significance, but at the same time in combination they look rich and effective. Since the duet is too “lively” it is not recommended to use it for decorating bedrooms. Choose neutral areas: bathroom, living room, hall.
- A similar combination. In this case, choose up to five shades from the color spectrum, which are located on the circle in the neighborhood. Do not forget to adjust their intensity so that the composition does not turn out too bright.
- Triad. The optimal number of colors to create a cozy interior in the "active" rooms: kitchen, living room. To select colors, inside a spectral circle draw a conditional triangle. Its peaks will indicate the desired shades.
- Quartet. To select four primary colors, you can draw a square inside the circle. The points of contact of his ribs will point to the correct tones. In general, the combination of four shades already refers to slightly oversaturated, so you should be careful with such a composition.
The “heat” of walls, floors, and ceilings depends on the choice of surface textures. Gloss, for example, gives chic to the setting, but also makes it slightly breech, museum. Matte surfaces are simpler as they are “warmer”. Among the "soft" options note the texture of veneer, which is not only pleasing to the eye, but also gentle to the touch.
Among the variety of finishing materials it is easy to get lost especially if the designer has never tried to design the interiors himself before. Using a combination of their textures, you can even conditionally zoning a room. The stylistic concept will help with the choice, since each direction gravitates to some materials and does not accept others. For example, classic kitchens use expensive tiles on the floor and on the walls. In shabby chic and some eclectic styles, only inexpensive materials are used, among which PVC is distinguished. Any rural areas, whether country or Provence, adore the tree. The same material covers literally all surfaces in the chalet. Partially it is used in the classical style, but at the same time the walls are papered with wallpaper. For high-tech, plastic, glass and metal are selected.
We develop a plan diagram of electricians and lighting
The wiring diagram combines cables, sockets, switches, meters, switchgears and taps. The correct selection of equipment and materials is the main goal for which this plan is being developed. Looking at the scheme, it is possible to more rationally plan the work on arranging the electrical network in the house. Having a detailed drawing on hand is much easier to determine the input power that is needed. If necessary, the scheme will help redistribute it during re-planning. This will prevent network congestion and the occurrence of fire hazard situations.
Furniture selection and placement
Elements of furniture are arranged in such a way that there are no "unfilled" spaces, but at the same time comfort is maintained for those who are in the room and for those who move around it. In large rooms, you can use the island layout and make the central set in the middle. For example, in the living room it will be a sofa with a coffee table, in the bedroom - a bed, and in the kitchen - two of the three vertices of the working triangle. If the room is cramped, then the furniture is placed around the perimeter. For narrow rooms it is not recommended to use the parallel layout method. In this case, the furniture is placed along two "long" walls, which will visually make the room even more elongated. If the room has a non-standard shape, then the headset elements select special, original, emphasizing its features. By the way, it is better to refuse sets of furniture. An exception may be only kitchen sets. In other cases, the kit is selected independently. The process will take some time, but the situation will not look like a typical apartment decoration from the 70s. In small rooms use multifunctional "garden" furniture. It saves space and, if necessary, cleans up, taking up even less space. In the styles of Provence, Russian, country, you can make some furniture elements yourself, as the directions welcome such a creative approach and have nothing against rough forms.
If the wall of the room has numerous defects that are difficult to fix, then place along it a built-in wardrobe (dressing room). No one will see the flaws, and the owners will have a huge closet.
Development of additional decorative elements
All decor is conditionally classified into two groups:
- Elements that are used exclusively for decoration. A special cosiness is, to a greater extent, the merit of precisely such “useless” trinkets from a rational point of view.
- A decor that performs useful functions. It includes floor lamps, bedside lamps, lamps, sconces, flower vases, jewelry boxes, mirrors, mittens for hot dishes and napkins in the kitchen.
Decorative "polishing" of the interior should be developed after the main work. However, sketchy sketches should be ready long before this stage. On the project, walls, floor and ceiling are adorned ahead of time with that decor, which will be located on their surfaces subsequently. Elements that will transform the furniture can be selected after repair. Single paintings, photographs or group compositions are hung on the walls. Mirrors, paintings, bas-reliefs, mosaics, designer collections of plates, porcelain, baskets also organically look. Floors are traditionally decorated with carpets, walkways, rugs, animal skins. The colder the room, the longer their pile. Recently, bulk floors have appeared that allow you to decorate this surface with incredible patterns. The ceiling is decorated with stucco molding, frescoes, beams, painting with complex multi-level frame structures made of drywall. However, the main decoration of this zone is a chandelier.
Among the popular visualizers, professionals note:
- 3D Studio MAX. The program is in demand not only among amateurs, but also in a professional environment. Perhaps this will be the best recommendation. The planner boasts high detail and a wide range of interior details.
- Sweet Home 3D. Free visualizer designed for novice users. The detail is primitive in order to drag the desired object into a three-dimensional room, just hold it with the left mouse button and drag it out of the graphic list. Unfortunately, the range of parts is rather poor, but additional catalogs are available for download on the official website.
- Roomle Another “simplified” version of the scheduler, designed for beginners. Using the program is free, but work is possible only in the online mode, that is, all information is stored in the cloud, and without an Internet connection, adjustments to the digital design project will fail. In addition to design, the user can evaluate his work by walking around the virtual house.
- Floorplanner. Detailed visualizer for beginners. The creators did not rely on the beauty of the picture, but on the possibility of developing a detailed project along with communication lines, partitions and stairs. The program was not Russified, but a simple interface will help not to get lost in the toolbar.
- Apartama. An online service that will become an erudite assistant in the design process, as the planner also includes training, useful tips. In the program, you can change the layout, choose finishing materials, furniture, decor details. The visualizer will also provide the addresses of stores where real samples of virtual copies of furniture are sold, that is, the user will immediately find out how much the bed for a bedroom or a vase for a living room costs.
Home improvement is a top priority for any designer. Visualizers will help you learn how to make projects with your own hands, without resorting to boring textbooks. Learning the basics of a difficult profession will be a pleasant game.
We make an estimate of the necessary materials
Before you make repairs, you need to prepare your wallet for serious trials. In order not to plunge yourself into a pre-infarction state, the amount is calculated in advance. Before making an estimate, carry out the following actions:
- After taking measurements, accurately calculate (with a slight excess) the amount of materials that will be needed for repair.
- Draw up your own “reserves” and, if necessary, remove it from the general list.
- For the same purpose, to conduct a survey among comrades who may not need this or that material at all, but gather dust in the garage.
After that, they begin to study the market and pricing policies of sellers. Services and materials with a cost of "above average" are included in the estimate. As a result, the amount will be overestimated, but if force majeure occurs, funds can be allocated from this "excess stock". If everything goes smoothly, then the remaining money will be a pleasant bonus to the original repair. Into the estimate make:
- Draft and basic materials;
- Labor cost of workers;
- Expendable materials;
- Cargo delivery and garbage collection.
When making estimates, they are guided precisely by such a simple plan.They draw it like a table and divide each item into subgroups. Those that are in stock or already purchased are marked with a plus, and those that are not yet with a dash.
Necessary tools for the implementation of the project
In this case, it is impossible to provide an exhaustive list, since in different situations a certain front of work is carried out. If the repair has already been done and you only need to arrange the furniture, then you will need measuring instruments and fastening systems (nails, screws, dowels). If you plan a full redistribution of the apartment or house, you will need a huge number of tools at each stage of work. For example, for wallpapering the walls you will have to stock up with glue, water, containers, a roller and brushes, a primer, clean rags or sponges, gloves, a measuring tape. If you need to create a complex frame for a suspended ceiling, you will need a puncher, rangefinder (tape measure), level, screwdriver, suspensions for the canvas, blades, stepladder, sealant. Each stage of the work will require a special set of tools.
Conclusion - project implementation
Making a design project with your own hands is only half the battle. Much more complicated and interesting will be its embodiment in reality. The more detailed you develop the project, the less problems will arise at the implementation stage. Before you begin the second part of the conversion, critically examine your preliminary work a few more times. It’s better to even show it to another person or flip through it yourself, but on a "fresh mind." So usually errors that previously were not evident were usually noticeable.