House drawings from sketch to finished project
Drawings and designs are made to control the processes of construction and decoration - from the beginning to the very end. The plan is drawn up with the help of architects, authorized bodies, or in person. In the latter case, nothing prevents you from seeking help. There are also ready-made options for all occasions: for large and small objects, of various shapes, with different internal layouts. The scheme (figure) and the project should be distinguished. The first is a schematic designation of the entire facility or some of its parts, as well as the surrounding area. The project includes not only the above data, but also statements on the consumption of materials, the cost of certain types of work and many other indicators. It contains all kinds of information necessary for the erection and preparation of the building. Projects are both two-dimensional and three-dimensional.
Need for a project and house drawings
According to the law, it is possible to build private houses both with the project, and without it. However, the experience of people competent in this field shows that the presence of a project is crucial at the construction stage. Without it, the work becomes more complicated, and failures appear in the algorithm of actions and their accuracy. It becomes even more difficult if there is no structure scheme and cost estimate. Moreover, the project and sketches, even created independently, will save on the services of engineers and architects. It will not work out in all aspects, but everyone can master the basics of designing simple houses. Special programs have also been developed for planning.
Projects help to calculate the consumption of materials, describe the parameters of rooms and buildings, choose the ideal place for doors, windows and balconies, determine the purpose of the premises and the functionality of the buildings. A detailed painted plan is needed to calculate the construction of the foundation and roof. It plays a key role in laying and locating:
- water supply system;
- septic tank;
How to make a project - preparatory stages for creating a drawing
First of all, the purpose of the future building is taken into account: it will become a place for a country vacation or permanent housing. Before you start drafting a project, you should consider the number and needs of all the people for whom the building is intended. Personal preferences are agreed upon in advance. It is recommended to choose a quiet place away from the carriageway. Housing construction is divided into stages, with appropriate fixation in the sections of the project.
First, a sketch is created. Then came the architectural and constructive sections. Following them, engineering and technical statements are prepared and then it is the turn to create drawings for the finishing / design section about the corresponding stage of work. Before creating the main sketch, you should sketch. Then, on the basis of the main drawing of the house, more detailed ones are drawn. They will become the basis for displaying an even more detailed layout.
What to consider when drawing up a house diagram
To make a plan, it is necessary to determine the number of storeys of the building, the roof option, the exterior, including the number of window openings, balconies and loggias. It should be possible to equip the terrace and attic. All these elements need to be displayed in longitudinal and transverse sections, together with structural qualities and the necessary materials. The features of the site under the house are taken into account, including location, orientation to the cardinal points, topography, and soil features. The optimal internal layout, primarily the location of the premises, depends on them. The number and configuration of rooms is selected taking into account the number of residents and the age of each of them.
The main priority in charting is functional utility. Facilities should also be provided to accommodate builders and other workers. On the plan, it is advisable to leave a place in reserve: sometime it can "fill up" with an additional garage or guest house.
Some functional elements that are best foreseen in advance:
- winter Garden;
- swimming pool;
Large rooms need additional heating!
Features of the design of the house - drawings as the basis for planning
The drawings help to roughly represent the final appearance of the building: inside and out. It makes no sense to rush to create the final version of the sketch. It is better to spend a lot of time and anticipate more nuances. Drawings can be adjusted over and over to new ideas, taking into account future activities on the site and inside the building. You can even provide for the completion of floors.
In the schemes, the first thing they indicate is their number, as well as the type of upper tier. The roof is flat and sloping, and an attic can be located under it. Zones are planned inside: working, for cooking, for relaxing, etc. Outside - utility rooms, outbuildings, gardens, common areas. Territories with a similar functional load are located close to each other. All of the above aspects underlie the design of ready-made plans. Each finished project is a certain option with a full set of necessary devices and functions.
What is included in the structure of the house project
Before starting the independent preparation of the project, it is necessary to understand its role, first of all, the purpose of each section. A detailed plan is mainly a guide for carrying out different types of work, in accordance with existing standards and personal preferences. The document is endowed with a controlling function: for the consumption of materials, costs and quality of work. The plan of the building includes the size of the rooms and openings, the location of the stairs, the configuration of the roof, foundation, basement, floors and attic.
The sections of the project are conditionally divided into two parts: architectural and construction and engineering. The first of them includes drawings of facades and detailed architectural schemes. There, parameters of length, distance, intervals, section parameters, area and volumes of rooms and nodes are indicated. As for the second part, it collects drawings of ventilation, heating, sewer and plumbing systems, as well as the power grid.
The project also includes estimated documentation, without which it will not be possible to design a house as real estate!
The list of mandatory architectural drawings of the house with dimensions
These include architectural and construction sketches:
- ground floor plan;
- second floor;
- basement and attic (if any);
- truss structure;
- transverse and longitudinal sections.
Architectural sketches provide for the application of accurate parameters, general characteristics of a residential building, auxiliary buildings, parts of structures and individual structures. Plans are made for each floor, with a clear indication of the functional role, whether it is residential, technical, utility or storage space. The papers indicate the area and all linear dimensions.
The location of windows and doors with the corresponding sizes, intervals and distances are applied here. You will need a plan for the frame structure of the roof. At the same time, all the rafters and other elements of the system are displayed. A table with the specification of the details of this design should be attached to the drawing. The roof plan is formed separately, indicating the dimensions and angles. The location of hatches, chimneys, ventilation and lucarnes is also displayed. Additionally, sections of spatial zones are compiled - from the base to the roof. At least 5 such drawings, made from different sides, are required.
Sectional drawings of the house and the image of facades from different sides
Sectional drawings are transverse, longitudinal and vertical. They are designed to determine the height of rooms on different floors, the depth of the basement or basement, the angle of inclination of various parts of the roof. Creating a project is impossible without sketches of all facades. For a house of a normal configuration, these are drawings of 4 different sides: front, back and end. Thus, the following sheets are added to the documentation: Front facade, Rear side of the building, Side facade No. 1, No. 2. The table with the specification of various elements, including windows and doors, will supplement this information.
Schemes of the sides of the house are a kind of correspondence of the simplified plan of the house and the initial sketches. That is why the preparation of simple plans through computer programs will not cause difficulties even for those who have not used them before. Designing, however, requires the involvement of specialists in various fields of construction. The appearance of the frontal facade is of fundamental importance. It should be further discussed.
The schemes specify the parameters, form, method of opening and the number of components of the joinery.
Design section: how to draw drawings and diagrams of individual elements
The constructive section includes detailed descriptions in diagrams with measurements in millimeters. It is replenished with both general plans and individual drawings of different elements. These include stairwells, foundation, floors, elements of the rafter system. For the project should indicate the characteristics of materials and products for each node. The foundation drawing shows the parameters of the reinforcing structures, the location in the soil and materials for the work. The foundation plan is represented by the general drawing and drawings of the longitudinal and cross sections.
Some types of drawings include sections of floor slabs in 2 planes at different elevations: +0.00, +3.00 and +6.00. Complex fit points of structural parts are indicated separately. For all nodes, calculations regarding static and strength are given. Tables are added to the section with a description of the features and algorithms for using crossbars, reinforcing bars and reinforced concrete parts.
Engineering section: drawings of rooms and communications
This section includes schemes of electrical equipment, sewage, water supply, heating systems, as well as explanations of calculations. The specification of individual equipment is displayed in the form of decoding tables. The engineering and technical part should contain statements about the parts of the building and about separate and autonomous systems inside the buildings. Drawings of the water supply system include a layout of communications on all tiers and in the basement. The sewer system is displayed on a similar basis. Often these two subsections are combined.
An axonometric diagram of the installation of water supply systems (for hot and cold water) is added to the engineering part. The electrical design should contain an indicator of the design power of the building, a drawing of the wiring of the lighting and power networks. The assembly section is filled with general and floor schemes. The technical part of the project also includes information on the location of electric and gas installations and a lightning conductor circuit diagram.
Burglar alarm system in house plan drawings
Before self-designing a house, it is necessary to provide for the use of a security alarm. In this case, the development of a separate project is required. The alarm system is based on a structural network of devices for organizing different levels of protection of objects. Efficiency should be the same throughout the territory.
The project is created in accordance with GOST and SNiP and the rest of the regulatory documentation. In this case, factors such as the function of the room, the area of the object, its design features, and the alarm option (sometimes wireless and wired) are taken into account. On the building plan, you need to identify the alarm system. Sensors of glass breaking, movement, opening, as well as a siren, a reader and a motion detection zone are applied to it. The alarm design is reviewed and approved by authorized organizations. Then detailed diagrams are created.
Related project documentation and construction drawings
The project contains statements on the stages of construction and the conduct of certain types of work. The master plan and detailed drawings are supplemented by explanatory tables and various annexes. In addition to individual plans that take into account personal preferences and special needs, you will need mandatory documents with key data. Among them - documentation with a list of finishing and building materials, information about their type, documents with a description of engineering solutions, information about finances and technical aspects.
You will need data on the height, area, mass and volume in cubic meters (cubic meter). Be sure to compile a description of the functionality of the building. This also applies to documentation with an architectural and structural assessment. Based on the project, it is customary to organize a process that includes a certain sequence of construction work and associated financial costs.
The architectural passport contains:
- Copy of the designer’s license;
- The plan and schematic images of the roof in the context;
- Floor plans;
- The coloring of the outer walls;
- Explanatory note.
Computer programs for house design
You can design a house using applications:
- Google SketchUp
- FloorPlan 3D;
- CyberMotion 3D-Designer 13.0;
- Home Plan Pro;
- Envisioneer Express.
These tools are intended for modeling three-dimensional architecture, in one-story and two-story houses, cottages, cottages. As an additional function, the program allows you to make a virtual arrangement of furniture. Special plugins and application data extensions render objects. Thanks to this option, you can watch how buildings look from above, in section, at an angle. In addition, modeling applications allow you to work with layers.
Models can be edited at any time, as well as twisted around its axis or enlarged to view the smallest details. To store different projects, libraries are provided in which you can quickly and easily view objects. Modern programs also allow you to create dynamic elements. Paid and free applications and online resources are available on the Internet to check the design features with the most realistic parameters.
Designing houses is a complex process with many accurate calculations. Before drawing up a construction plan, all aspects should be discussed several times in order to dwell on any one option. Ready-made projects will simplify the task. Specialists use personal experience to collect in them a complete set of functions that are useful in specific situations. However, you can design a house yourself, whether it is a building made of brick, stone or timber. The project is created into several sections.
Design begins with the creation of a large overall plan. Next, drawings of floors and sections are added. The building is visualized on each side and inside. Then, separate rooms, nodes and household communications are drawn. It will be necessary to indicate the dimensions, at the last stage - with an accuracy of millimeters. When the projects of the foundation, buildings and roofs are ready, it will be the turn of ventilation, sewage, water supply and other systems. After this, it remains only to approve the project.