Finishing a balcony with a do-it-yourself clapboard
Most standard apartments have balconies and loggias. Such premises are taken into account in the total area, but do not always have the proper form. To make a real rest room in which you can place a rocking chair, create a greenhouse, it is enough to finish the surfaces. One of the most popular options is lining the balcony with a clapboard. Working with natural material does not take much time and effort. With minimal experience and the appropriate tool, the inner lining can be done independently.
Wooden cladding boards are used for interior decoration. Any of the species has excellent performance, attractive appearance. Natural material is easy to install thanks to special locks on each element. Profiled boards can be made of any type and grade of wood. Most often use pine, oak, linden lining.
Wood panels are very plastic, which facilitates their processing. When installing, repairing individual elements, you can use a hand tool. The special configuration provides the lining with a number of advantages. Convenient width and thickness, piece nature of the panels have a positive effect on the weight of the material. One person can handle the installation of compact slats, there is no need to assemble a powerful frame and overload the base for installing wooden parts.
The panels are installed in the tongue-and-groove way, wooden boards cover each other with an approach of 5-8 mm. This avoids the appearance of cracks when changing temperature and humidity indicators. Thanks to special fastenings, metal clamps, on the lined surfaces the appearance of rises, cracks and other kinds of deformations is excluded. Moreover, all fasteners are hidden behind a smooth, decorative surface.
Advantages and disadvantages of finishing a balcony with a clapboard
Any type of material can be easily and quickly mounted without a lot of waste and dust. It is enough to connect the panels together and install on the crate. On the glazed balcony, work can be done at any time of the year. A large selection of shapes and colors of lining allows you to create a lining that is in harmony with the design of the main room. Finishing the interior walls of the balcony with wooden slats has the following advantages:
- Environmentally friendly material does not emit harmful substances into the environment. It is completely safe.
- Natural wood has an attractive appearance, fills the room with comfort.
- High-strength panels have a long service life even in adverse conditions of an unheated room.
- Fashion to sheathe walls, the ceiling with natural panels will always be relevant.
- To increase moisture resistance, fire resistance, increase strength, minimal measures will be required.
- Excellent thermal insulation properties of dense material allow the loggia to be used in winter.
- Low cost in comparison with other modern finishing materials.
The disadvantages of wood trim balcony are minor and easily removable. The possible formation of mold and rotting of surfaces can be prevented and prevented with the help of special impregnations and stains at the installation stage. It is possible to exclude deformation and distortions if the walls are well insulated. Also negative aspects include a decrease in the area of the balcony by 5-10 cm. This is a big problem for small loggias, as in Khrushchev.
If you plan to use the balcony as a living room, you will need additional insulation.
Varieties of lining
A special board for surface finishing can be of different types, despite the fact that it is manufactured according to a single principle. Classify the material based on the type of wood, general characteristics. After passing through all production stages, the lining is sorted according to certain GOSTs. The presence of tar pockets, cracks, knots, blue is revealed. The panels are divided into the following grades:
- Extra. Top grade material. Not the slightest burr is allowed, the panel does not need additional processing.
- Class A. There may be 2-3 knots and chips near them per 1 m of product length. The front part may be in microcracks. Chipped at the end are allowed, but no more than the width of the board. Minor gumming is permitted for softwood products.
- Class B. Cracks and several falling knots are allowed, with a diameter of not more than 2 cm. Resin pockets, areas affected by insects, but not more than 3 foci on one board and 5% of the entire batch are possible. Uneven color and pattern are allowed. Blue is excluded.
- Class C. There are no restrictions on all parameters except rot. Through cracks, large resin pockets, sprouts, pattern mismatch, extensive damage by pests are allowed.
According to the type of wood, the lining is divided into coniferous, from hardwood, exotic varieties. The choice of a particular type depends on the characteristics of the wood and the surface treated. Any of the types is produced in various sizes - length from 0.3 m to 6 m, width - from 0.8 cm to 1.6 cm.
Wooden panels for cladding differ not only in quality indicators and size, but also in the appearance and structure of the lock. Given the desire of consumers to create an individual design indoors, manufacturers produce several varieties of profiles. For covering the balcony, you can use the following types:
- Standard. The length of the board is 2-6 m. The outer surface is smooth, carefully sanded. The cross section has the form of a trapezoid. An additional chamfer (angular or rounded) is made on the front side near the spike. This allows you to see pronounced seams on the wall after installation.
- Softline. The surface has no angles, which reduces the likelihood of burrs and chips. The rounded profile creates an unusually decorative effect.
- American. The inner plane of the plank is supplemented with a special recess, which allows you to do wall lapping. There is no chamfer near the spike, a smooth transition is made from it to the center of the front part. Such a design imitates siding panels with reliable joining of elements.
- Landhouse The front side of the parts is milled, hot stamped or otherwise used to obtain a complex pattern on the surface. The inside of the lamella is flat with grooves. Reliable connection provide side joints in the form of spikes. The processing method makes this type of lining the most expensive.
- Block house. The front part is fully twisted. After installation, it seems that the balcony is made of round logs. Grooves on the inside allow moisture to flow freely. Type of joints - spikes and recesses. Such material is often finished saunas.
- Calm. Planks look similar to euro lining, but they have not such a wide tongue and groove part. There is no chamfer near the spike, which makes the seams after installation weakly expressed.
How to sheathe a balcony with your own hands
Any person with a minimal idea of repair can improve their balcony or loggia on their own. Correctly performed calculations and step-by-step execution of all stages of work will help to quickly and efficiently make the lining of the room. At the planning stage and when choosing the main material, many homeowners in apartment buildings try to find a cheaper option by considering PVC panels. But such a finish will not be durable, as aesthetic as natural wood. Therefore, there is no point in saving, but it is better to allocate a little time and money and make a beautiful, unique finish.
Necessary tools and supporting materials
In addition to the main lining material, wooden blocks are required for work. Of these, a crate will be made. In conditions of high humidity, it is better to use auxiliary elements made of plastic or with the addition of plasticizers. A metal profile will also be required. If insulation is necessary, then roll foil, mineral wool or polystyrene should be purchased in advance.
A vapor barrier film, mounting foam, masking tape will help ensure good sealing. At the stage of surface preparation, you can not do without materials for wall decoration. You can use a primer, putty based on PVA. Topcoat will require varnish. Painted lining will have a more aesthetic appearance. To fix the foam, lathing and wood panels, anchor bolts, self-tapping screws, nails, kleimers are used. Finishing work is carried out using the following tools:
- Drill, hammer drill;
- Drills for drill and wood;
- Jigsaw, hacksaw;
- Measuring instruments (level, cord, tape measure);
- Hammer, ax.
Calculation of the required amount of material
After choosing the type of wood and the profile of the lining, it is necessary to correctly calculate the required number of panels for work. Experts recommend giving preference to linden or pine, as it is more resistant to temperature extremes. You can calculate the required amount of material using the online calculator on the website of the manufacturer, supplier or make your own calculations.
The standard parameters of the lamellas according to GOST are length - 6 m, width - 15 cm. By multiplying we can determine the quadrature. The area of one such board will be 0.9 m2. Since there are many types and sizes of lining, in this way you need to calculate the area for your board. If we divide the area of the balcony by the area of one board, we find out the required number of panels.
When calculating the number of boards, you should take into account the size of windows, doors, you also need to take into account the features of the lining fastening. As a result of installation, the width of each board will be reduced.
Before starting work and even before purchasing materials, you should prepare the surface of the balcony for decoration. All elements of the old cladding are removed from the walls, whitewash is washed off, the paint is erased. You should also remove the tide, window slopes, skirting boards. Work can only be carried out in a bare box.
Mounting the crate for wood panels is possible only on perfectly smooth walls. Only in this case will it be durable and outwardly attractive. Waves and mounds should be leveled with special mixtures, and the cracks should be puttied.
On the glazed balcony, you must carefully inspect the frames. Worn-out elements must be repaired or replaced. Rotten areas are subject to mandatory treatment with antiseptic drugs. If this is not done, the lining will immediately begin to deteriorate after installation. We carefully fill all the cracks with mounting foam.
If the balcony railing is made of metal, then it should be covered with foam blocks mounted on cement mortar. In regions with a cold climate, walls and a protective edge are upholstered with waterproofing film.
Lining preparation and processing
Despite the many positive characteristics, wooden lamellas need reliable protection from external factors - exposure to the sun, moisture, pests. Improve the appearance and increase the durability of the material will help special compositions - varnishes, impregnations, primers, paints.
Start preparing the lining for installation with a thorough inspection. If moldy spots, dark areas are found, they must be bleached with special solutions. The composition is selected based on the tree species, its class. For birch, beech, walnut, hydrogen peroxide is suitable. Ash is treated with a solution of peroxide and ammonia in a ratio of 10: 1. Oak, linden, maple are wiped with oxalic acid. Any bleaching agent must be washed off with water after application.
If irregularities are found and just for prevention, the new lining is cleaned with a fine-grained skin. Then the boards are washed, dried and coated with an antiseptic composition. After which they leave to dry in a horizontal position during the day.
Choice of insulation
To warm the balcony, any available material is suitable. You should choose taking into account the level of insulation of each, cost, form of sale, ease of installation. Each of the options presented on the market has individual features, operational indicators. Before choosing, you should familiarize yourself with the characteristics of each type:
- Styrofoam. Affordable material fully performs its functions of insulation. Tucked under the lining, it does not contact the external environment, therefore it will serve for a long time.
- Mineral wool. In addition to a good ability to heat, it absorbs moisture greatly. It belongs to the middle price category. Release form - rolls and skeins. It can be used only if it is possible to completely eliminate wetting.
- Extruded polystyrene foam. The best option for insulation. It has good sound insulation. The locking installation system completely eliminates the appearance of cracks. The price is above average.
- Foiled polyethylene foam. Suitable for the southern regions, where the greatest danger to the lining is not cold, but moisture. It can be used as an additional layer.
- Foam glass. Lightweight, durable material well retains heat indoors at - 50 ° C on the street. Quality specifications vary by manufacturer. It has the highest cost of all presented.
- Foam block. Only suitable for spacious balconies. The minimum width of the parts is 30 cm. Lightweight, durable material can be installed on any surface.
Installation of the crate
A wooden frame for lining is mounted on top of an already installed insulation and waterproofing layers. For its manufacture, bars from 3 cm thick will be required. Thin boards can crack when hammering nails. The best option for the crate is a 5x5 cm bar. All additional wood materials must be treated with impregnation against rot before installation.
If the lining will be laid horizontally, the supporting crate is stuffed vertically. The diagonal, transverse arrangement of the slats requires a horizontal direction of the frame. The distance between the strips in both cases should be at least 0.5 m. If the bars are not tightly attached to the wall, wooden wedges must be placed under them. In some cases, it is possible to grind sections of planks to level the base.
The first two slats are screwed to the ceiling. Then the distance of subsequent parts is marked, and the bars are nailed. According to the same scheme, according to the instructions, the crate is mounted on all surfaces. At the installation stage of the crate, the location of the cabinet, shelves, and other furniture is determined.
After the preparatory work has been done, the process of lining the balcony with a clapboard will seem very simple. Planks are collected using special locks - tongue-and-groove method and nailed to the crate. Installation work should be carried out very carefully, as a natural tree will easily crack from the wrong direction of the nail. The connection of parts is best done through the bar.
The installation of the lining begins from the corner, gradually moving along the walls. The first panel is applied to the guide bar and level. They drive the nails into the groove and comb, trying to choose the optimal distance from the edge. Take the next item and connect the locks. For a snug fit, you can gently hit the panel with a mallet and secure with nails at the top and bottom. Such manipulations must be done with all the details.In the corners, it is necessary to leave small gaps for free air circulation, to prevent the formation of mold.
Using nails, you can attach the lining to the wall in several ways - in the groove, in the spike, through and through. They also use the clamping method. One board is applied to the surface and loosely nailed down and up. Kleimer is attached to the lamella and to the crate, and the initial fixation is removed. After finishing, they proceed to the slopes and line the floor. The final touch - platbands and skirting boards.
Protective and decorative coating for lining
Wood has a low resistance to atmospheric phenomena, is a breeding ground for insects, bacteria, burns well. In order to avoid negative moments during operation and extend the life of the casing, the lining must be processed and a protective coating applied.
Processing of wooden panels significantly increases their characteristics, protective, decorative properties. For this, various mixtures are applied to the element in layers, each of which performs its function. Solutions for coating are divided into several groups:
- Lucky. The characteristics of the compositions for lining determines the main component. The water base is safe and non-toxic, odorless. The panels can only be painted on the glazed balcony. Alkyd, acrylic base is suitable for any climatic conditions, well protects from ultraviolet radiation.
- Paints. Used less often than varnishes, if necessary, mask defects. Any mixture will completely hide the unique pattern of the tree. For balconies, thick alkyd, facade, oil paints are suitable.
- Impregnation. They create reliable protection of the skin on the balcony due to deep penetration into the structure of the tree. More often use stains and wax impregnations.
A comfortable balcony with a beautiful finish pleases the eye, it retains heat better. Lining is precisely the material that is able to realize all the desires of the owner of the apartment. The process of arranging with your own hands takes a minimum of time and effort, and the result will delight households for decades.